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To that end, let us have a look at the origins and history of the Aztec warrior culture that paved the way for one of the greatest empires in the Western Hemisphere.
In fact, the legacy of the Aztecs directly relates to that of the Mexica culture, one of the nomadic Chichimec people that entered the Valley of Mexico by circa AD.
The Mexica were both farmers and hunter-gatherers, but they were mostly known by their brethren to be fierce warriors.
And on the latter front, they were tested — by remnants of the Toltec Empire. In fact, according to one version of their legacy, it was the Toltec warlords who pursued the Mexica and forced them to retreat to an island.
Suffice it to say, in these initial years when Tenochtitlan was still considered as a backwater settlement, the Mexica were not counted among the political elite of the region.
As such many of them peddled their status as fearsome warriors and inducted themselves as elite mercenaries of the numerous rival Toltec factions.
This shift in the balance of power in their favor fueled the Mexica to a dominant position in the region. And together banding with their culturally-aligned, Nahuatl-speaking brethren from the allied cities of Texcoco and Tlacopan, the Mexica nobles and princes formed what is known as the Aztec Triple Alliance or the Aztec Empire.
This super-entity ruled the area in and around the Valley of Mexico from the 15th century till the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors.
As we can gather from the earlier entry, the Aztecs pertaining to an alliance of Nahuatl -speaking people were first and foremost a warrior society.
Relating to the last part of the statement, while the nobles and high-ranking members of the Aztec society played their crucial roles in both the political and military affairs, the Aztec military structure at least during the first half of 15th century theoretically adhered to the ideals of meritocracy.
Simply put, a commoner could also rise up to the rank of an Aztec warrior, on the condition that he proved his ferocity and valor in battle by not only killing but also capturing a certain number of enemies.
One of the first tasks the small boy had to perform related to the intensive physical labor of carrying heavy goods and crucial food supplies from the central marketplace.
And for that, he was only provided with a frugal meal of half a maize cake at the age of three, a full maize cake at the age of five, and one-and-a-half maize cake at the age of twelve.
These paltry portions encouraged the would-be Aztec warrior to subsist on meager food items. By the age of seven, the Aztec boy had to learn to maneuver his family boat and fish on Lake Texcoco.
Once the Aztecs had decided to conquer a particular city Altepetl , they sent an ambassador from Tenochtitlan to offer the city protection.
They would showcase the advantages cities would gain by trading with the empire. The Aztecs, in return, asked for gold or precious stones for the Emperor.
They were given 20 days to decide their request. If they refused, more ambassadors were sent to the cities. However, these ambassadors were used as up front threats.
Instead of trade, these men would point out the destruction the empire could and would cause if the city were to decline their offer.
They were given another 20 days. There were no more warnings. The cities were destroyed and their people were taken as prisoners.
The Aztecs used a system in which men stationed approximately 4. For example, the runners might be sent by the king to inform allies to mobilize if a province began to rebel.
Messengers also alerted certain tributary cities of the incoming army and their food needs, carried messages between two opposing armies, and delivered news back to Tenochtitlan about the outcome of the war.
While messengers were also used in other regions of Mesoamerica, it was the Aztecs who apparently developed this system to a point of having impressive communicative scope.
Prior to mobilization, formal spies called quimichtin lit. Mice were sent into the territory of the enemy to gather information that would be advantageous to the Aztecs.
Specifically, they were requested to take careful note of the terrain that would be crossed, fortification used, details about the army, and their preparations.
These spies also sought out those who were dissidents in the area and paid them for information. The quimichtin traveled only by night and even spoke the language and wore the style of clothing specific to the region of the enemy.
Due to the extremely dangerous nature of this job they risked a torturous death and the enslavement of their family if discovered , these spies were amply compensated for their work.
The Aztecs also used a group of trade spies, known as the naualoztomeca. The naualoztomeca were forced to disguise themselves as they traveled.
They sought after rare goods and treasures. The naualoztomeca were also used for gathering information at the markets and reporting the information to the higher levels of pochteca.
Ahtlatl : perhaps lit. This weapon was considered by the Aztecs to be suited only for royalty and the most elite warriors in the army, and was usually depicted as being the weapon of the Gods.
Murals at Teotihuacan show warriors using this effective weapon and it is characteristic of the Mesoamerican cultures of central Mexico.
Warriors at the front lines of the army would carry the ahtlatl and about three to five tlacochtli, and would launch them after the waves of arrows and sling projectiles as they advanced into battle before engaging into melee combat.
The ahtlatl could also throw spears as its name implies "spear thrower". Tlacochtli : The "darts" launched from an Atlatl, not so much darts but more like big arrows about 5.
Tipped with obsidian, fish bones, or copper heads. Archers in the Aztec army were designated as Tequihua. Typically fletched with turkey or duck feathers.
The Aztecs used oval shaped rocks or hand molded clay balls filled with obsidian flakes or pebbles as projectiles for this weapon.
Bernal Diaz del Castillo noted that the hail of stones flung by Aztec slingers was so furious that even well armored Spanish soldiers were wounded.
Tlacalhuazcuahuitl : A blowgun consisting of a hollow reed using poisoned darts for ammunition. The darts used for this weapon were made out of sharpened wood fletched with cotton and usually doused in the neurotoxic secretions from the skin of tree frogs found in jungle areas of central Mexico.
This was used primarily for hunting rather than warfare. Essentially a wooden sword with sharp obsidian blades embedded into its sides similar in appearance and build to a modern cricket bat.
This was the standard armament of the elite cadres. Also known in Spanish by the Taino word " macana ". A blow from such a weapon was reputedly capable of decapitating a horse.
Cuahuitl : Lit. User Reviews. User Ratings. External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions.
Rate This. Aztec warriors were the lifeblood of the Aztec military, and there was opportunity for growth and status if they had the skill and bravery.
There are many tellings of the Aztec rankings and whether they were afforded to commoners and nobles alike.
One thing we are sure of is the root of progression was similar for all the warrior ranks, capture more enemies on the battlefield.
The ultimate ranking for an Aztec warrior was to be a member of the prestigious ranks of the cuauhchicqueh, the Shorn Ones. They were distinguished by their daring deeds in the battlefield, which primarily comprised of capturing large numbers of captives for sacrifice to Aztec gods.
Shorn Ones were another unit of Aztec warriors who had their heads shaved and carried a long braid at the back of their head.
They were reputed for never stepping back in the battlefield. Reaching the rank of the Shorn Ones usually required capturing six or more warriors.
The Shorn Ones usually refused to receive any titles of seniority and remained combatants so that they could continue to wage war on the battlefield.
Tlamanih was another type of Aztec warrior. They shaved their heads except for a long braid of hair on the left side and wore yellow tlahuiztli.
These two ranks were the shock troops of the empire, the special forces of the Aztec army, and were open only to the nobility.
These warriors were greatly feared and went first into battle. This article is part of our larger resource on Aztec civilization.
For a comprehensive overview of the Aztec Empire, including its military, religion, and agriculture, click here.Juan Claudio Nadine Velazquez Also of great importance was the communication of messages between Affiliate übersetzung military leaders and the warriors on the field so that political initiatives and collaborative ties could be established and maintained. For the Aztec Warfare wrestling match, see Lucha Underground tournaments.